The nature of copy and paste engineering is that fundamental design errors are reproduced many times. One fundamental error in banks of surge vessels is to forget to ensure multiple vessels are connected by inertially equivalent connections. This leads to an instability that undermines the vessel performance and can nullify the protection provided.
This paper was published at the 11th International BHR Pressure Surge conference in Lisbon 2012 but sadly the design errors illustrated are still repeated in many new pumping station installations around the world.
It is important that anyone undertaking a pressure surge analysis is aware of this phenomenon.vesselstability